Plants are like human beings. They need water, air, nutrients for growth, and sunlight to survive. We need to provide their requirements as necessary. Just like us, fruit and vegetable plants undergo diseases. We need to concern about those diseases too. Precautions and proper care can drive away diseases from your favorite plants. Let’s check out the 11 common fruits and vegetable diseases and the way to overcome them.
Root-knot nematode or eelworms attack a wide range of plants, including vegetables and fruits. You will see this disease in potatoes very commonly. The worm attacks the root system of a plant. The disease symptoms include varying degrees of stunning, tendency to wilt under moisture stress, and yellowing of leaves. Roots will get beads or knots and swellings or galls.
You can control root-knot nematode by practicing good farm hygiene and rotate crops with immune, resistant, and non-host crops like cereals and grasses.
Bacterial leaf spot of ornamentals and vegetables
Bacterial leaf spot disease is caused by P. cichorii bacterium. It is commonly seen in lettuce, basil, cabbage, pepper, and vinca. You will notice large black, roughly circular, a zonate spot located at the base of the plant. It occurs starting from the leaf margin. You can easily overcome the diseases by following specific remedies. Sanitation is essential in farming. It will help you to avoid this leaf spot disease to a great extent. You must avoid overhead head irrigation during the evening and night. Killing the infected plants will prevent the spreading of the disease to others.
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus
Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit virus affects tomato, chili, and capsicum. You will notice brown spots. ToBRFV shows several symptoms like yellowing of leaves, leaf narrowing, mottling, and mosaic patterns. You will see brown spots appear on the stem of fruit, leaves, and bracts surrounding the fruit when the plant becomes a victim of ToBRFV. Practicing good plant hygiene, monitoring crops regularly for diseases, and disinfecting tools used to treat affected plants will help avoid ToBRFV.
Rust is a fungus disease common to fruits and vegetables. It appears most commonly on leaves. But it comes to the stem too.
White mould disease is very common among vegetable plants. You will see it in lettuce, beans, celery, and broccoli family veggie plants. White moulds are visible as soft brownish water rots emerging on the stem. There are fluffy white
Leaf Spot Diseases
Leaf spot disease is a common disease that you will undergo as a farmer. There are several types of leaf spot diseases. You will get the disease in potatoes, peas, tomatoes, and silverbeet. Plants won’t undergo huge damages from leaf spots. But this needs to be cured. You can use copper hydroxide or marcozeb to treat the damaged plants.
Mildew diseases can come in both dry and wet seasons. There are few types of mildews that attack your vegetable and fruit crops.
Downy mildew disease is very common during the spring. It comes in a mild and humid environment. If you notice grayish-white patches on the leaves of the plant, probably that is due to downy mildew effects. It is visible on the underside of the leaves of onion, lettuce, cauliflower, and peas. The fungus causing downy mildew damages to the crop is unique to the particular crop. You can treat the affected plant with mancozeb or copper hydroxide.
Powdery mildew is another type of mildew disease relates to a fungus. It comes in warm and moist conditions. The older leaves will be covered with white patches. There is a high tendency for leaves to turn brown and shrivel. You may have undergone this disease if you are growing plants of the cucurbit family, like melon, pumpkin, and cucumbers. Powdery mildew disease is present in fruit plants like strawberries too. You need to apply fungicide containing bicarbonate of soda just after noticing the infections. The sulphur spray also works well in healing the disease. Remember to avoid using sulfur spray on hot days.
Leaves turning yellow
Yellowing of leaves is a common problem for any kind of plant, including vegetables and fruits. It can occur due to several reasons. Some plants tend to turn yellow due to a lack of light. When they can’t access an adequate amount of light, leaves turn yellow and die with time. Place your plants in an open place to obtain sunlight.
Chemical burns also turn leaves yellow. So you need to be careful in using chemicals and fertilizer for plants. Some viral diseases turn leaves yellow. So you need to be aware of them too.
Tipburn in lettuce
You may have noticed that the leaf margin breakdown in lettuce. There are internal and external tipburns. It comes due to calcium deficiencies in the plant. The climate and growth also affect tipburn disease. Windburn and sandblasting also cause tipburns in lettuce.
Tipburn disease can occur in any season, including summer, spring, and autumn. You can avoid this by reducing the excessive use of fertilizers that include nitrogen. Moisture levels must be consistent to prevent tipburns.
Carrot fly damages carrot crops. It is a small fly that feeds on the roots of carrot-related plants. Plants like parsley, parsnip, and celeriac get damaged by this disease. The most harmful effect caused by the fly I rotting the roots. You can use an insect-proof net to protect your crops.
Cabbage Root Fly
Cabbage root fly harms the vegetables of the cabbage family. So you need to protect broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower from this insect. It eats the root and stem base of the plant. No pesticide is able to prevent the damage caused by cabbage root fly. So it is better to do crop rotation to limit the infestation.
To Sum Up
It is better to know about plant diseases before taking any action to prevent them. This article gives you a brief idea about them. Diseases can worsen the quality of the harvest of vegetables and fruits. The worst impact of diseases is destroying the whole plant. The pesticides, weedicides, and other insecticides will help you to drive away plant diseases. But I recommend you to follow natural and organic methods to escape from them.